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Symbiose team

Scientific production


  • Auer, E., Lazuka, A., Huguenin-Bizot, B. et al. Horizontal metaproteomics and CAZymes analysis of lignocellulolytic microbial consortia selectively enriched from cow rumen and termite gut. ISME COMMUN. 3, 134 (2023).
  • Aboulela, A., Peyre Lavigne, M., Buvignier, A., Fourre, M., Schiettekatte, M., Pons, T., Patapy, C., Robin, O., Bounouba, M., Paul, E., Bertron, A., 2021. Laboratory Test to Evaluate the Resistance of Cementitious Materials to Biodeterioration in Sewer Network Conditions. Materials 14, 686.
  • Besson, M., Berger, S., Tiruta-barna, L., Paul, E., Spérandio, M., 2021. Environmental assessment of urine, black and grey water separation for resource recovery in a new district compared to centralized wastewater resources recovery plant. J. Clean. Prod. 301, 126868.
  • Cavaillé, L., Kim, C., Bounouba, M., Zind, H., Claparols, C., Riboul, D., Pinelli, E., Albasi, C., Bessiere, Y., 2021. Development and validation of QuEChERS-based extraction for quantification of nine micropollutants in wastewater treatment plant. Anal. Bioanal. Chem.
  • Dumond, L., Lam, P.Y., van Erven, G., Kabel, M., Mounet, F., Grima-Pettenati, J., Tobimatsu, Y., Hernandez-Raquet, G., 2021. Termite Gut Microbiota Contribution to Wheat Straw Delignification in Anaerobic Bioreactors. ACS Sustain. Chem. Eng.
  • Etcheberry, T., Lavigne, M.P., Trias, R., Brunner, S., Zuluaga, J.T., Di Gioia, L., Paul, E., 2021. Start-up strategies for nitrification and manganese oxidation on a single stage RSF for drinking water production. Water Supply.
  • Faixo, S., Gehin, N., Balayssac, S., Gilard, V., Mazeghrane, S., Haddad, M., Gaval, G., Paul, E., Garrigues, J.-C., 2021. Current trends and advances in analytical techniques for the characterization and quantification of biologically recalcitrant organic species in sludge and wastewater: A review. Anal. Chim. Acta 1152, 338284.
  • Figueras, J., Benbelkacem, H., Dumas, C., Buffiere, P., 2021. Biomethanation of syngas by enriched mixed anaerobic consortium in pressurized agitated column. Bioresour. Technol. 338, 125548.
  • Giroudon, M., Lavigne, M.P., Patapy, C., Bertron, A., 2021a. Blast-furnace slag cement and metakaolin based geopolymer as construction materials for liquid anaerobic digestion structures: Interactions and biodeterioration mechanisms. Sci. Total Environ. 750, 141518.
  • Giroudon, M., Perez, C., Peyre Lavigne, M., Erable, B., Lors, C., Patapy, C., Bertron, A., 2021b. Insights into the local interaction mechanisms between fermenting broken maize and various binder materials for anaerobic digester structures. J. Environ. Manage. 300, 113735.
  • Paul, E., Bessière, Y., Dumas, C., Girbal-Neuhauser, E., 2020. Biopolymers Production from Wastes and Wastewaters by Mixed Microbial Cultures: Strategies for Microbial Selection. Waste Biomass Valorization.
  • Rafrafi, Y., Laguillaumie, L., Figueras, J., Dumas, C., 2021. Biological Methanation of H-2 and CO2 with Mixed Cultures: Current Advances, Hurdles and Challenges (vol 74, pg 987, 2020). Waste Biomass Valorization 12, 5283–5283.
  • Bisinella de Faria, A. B., Besson, M., Ahmadi, A., Udert, K. M., & Spérandio, M. (2020). Dynamic Influent Generator for Alternative Wastewater Management with Urine Source Separation. Journal of Sustainable Water in the Built Environment, 6(2), 04020001.
  • Dai, Y., Hu, G., Dupas, A., Medina, L., Blandels, N., San Clemente, H., Ladouce, N., Badawi, M., Hernandez-Raquet, G., Mounet, F., Grima-Pettenati, J., & Cassan-Wang, H. (2020). Implementing the CRISPR/Cas9 Technology in Eucalyptus Hairy Roots Using Wood-Related Genes. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(10), 3408.
  • Dietrich, N., Kentheswaran, K., Ahmadi, A., Teychené, J., Bessière, Y., Alfenore, S., Laborie, S., Bastoul, D., Loubière, K., Guigui, C., Sperandio, M., Barna, L., Paul, E., Cabassud, C., Liné, A., & Hébrard, G. (2020). Attempts, Successes, and Failures of Distance Learning in the Time of COVID-19. Journal of Chemical Education.
  • Dumas, C., Ottosen, L. D. M., Escudié, R., & Jensen, P. (2020). Editorial : Biological Methanation or (Bio/Syn)-Gas Upgrading. Frontiers in Energy Research, 8.
  • Gonzalez-Salgado, I., Cavaillé, L., Dubos, S., Mengelle, E., Kim, C., Bounouba, M., Paul, E., Pommier, S., & Bessiere, Y. (2020). Combining thermophilic aerobic reactor (TAR) with mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) improves the degradation of pharmaceutical compounds. Water Research, 182, 116033.
  • Humbert, G., Sébilo, M., Fiat, J., Lang, L., Filali, A., Vaury, V., Spérandio, M., & Laverman, A. M. (2020). Isotopic evidence for alteration of nitrous oxide emissions and producing pathways’ contribution under nitrifying conditions. Biogeosciences, 17(4), 979‑993.
  • Jimenez, J., Charnier, C., Kouas, M., Latrille, E., Torrijos, M., Harmand, J., Patureau, D., Sperandio, M., Morgenroth, E., Beline, F., Ekama, G., Vanrolleghem, P. A., Robles, A., Seco, A., Batstone, D. J., & Steyer, J.-P. (2020). Modelling hydrolysis : Simultaneous versus sequential biodegradation of the hydrolysable fractions. Waste Management, 101, 150‑160.
  • Paul, E., Bessière, Y., Dumas, C., & Girbal-Neuhauser, E. (2020). Biopolymers Production from Wastes and Wastewaters by Mixed Microbial Cultures : Strategies for Microbial Selection. Waste and Biomass Valorization.
  • Rafrafi, Y., Laguillaumie, L., & Dumas, C. (2020). Biological Methanation of H2 and CO2 with Mixed Cultures : Current Advances, Hurdles and Challenges. Waste and Biomass Valorization.
  • Ribeiro, T., Cresson, R., Pommier, S., Preys, S., André, L., Béline, F., Bouchez, T., Bougrier, C., Buffière, P., Cacho, J., Camacho, P., Mazéas, L., Pauss, A., Pouech, P., Rouez, M., & Torrijos, M. (2020). Measurement of Biochemical Methane Potential of Heterogeneous Solid Substrates : Results of a Two-Phase French Inter-Laboratory Study. Water, 12(10), 2814.
  • Schambeck, C. M., Girbal-Neuhauser, E., Böni, L., Fischer, P., Bessière, Y., Paul, E., da Costa, R. H. R., & Derlon, N. (2020). Chemical and physical properties of alginate-like exopolymers of aerobic granules and flocs produced from different wastewaters. Bioresource Technology, 312, 123632.
  • Buvignier, A., Patapy, C., Lavigne, M.P., Paul, E., Bertron, A., 2019a. Resistance to biodeterioration of aluminium-rich binders in sewer network environment: Study of the possible bacteriostatic effect and role of phase reactivity. Cem. Concr. Res. 123, UNSP 105785.
  • Buvignier, A., Peyre-Lavigne, M., Robin, O., Bounouba, M., Patapy, C., Bertron, A., Paul, E., 2019b. Influence of Dissolved-Aluminum Concentration on Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacterial Activity in the Biodeterioration of Concrete. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 85, UNSP e00302-19.
  • Digan, L., Horgue, P., Debenest, G., Dubos, S., Pommier, S., Paul, E., Dumas, C., 2019. An improved hydrodynamic model for percolation and drainage dynamics for household and agricultural waste beds. Waste Manag. 98, 69–80.
  • Fiat, J., Filali, A., Fayolle, Y., Bernier, J., Rocher, V., Sperandio, M., Gillot, S., 2019. Considering the plug-flow behavior of the gas phase in nitrifying BAF models significantly improves the prediction of N2O emissions. Water Res. 156, 337–346.
  • Mampaey, K., Spérandio, M., van Loosdrecht, M.C.M., Volcke, E.I.P., 2019. Dynamic simulation of N2O emissions from a full-scale partial nitritation reactor. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 152, 107356.
  • Mozo, I., Bounouba, M., Mengelle, E., Lesage, N., Sperandio, M., Bessiere, Y., 2019. Modelling PAHs removal in activated sludge process: effect of disintegration. Water Sci. Technol. 80, 794–805.
  • Seviour, T., Derlon, N., Dueholm, M.S., Flemming, H.-C., Girbal-Neuhauser, E., Horn, H., Kjelleberg, S., van Loosdrecht, M.C.M., Lotti, T., Malpei, M.F., Nerenberg, R., Neu, T.R., Paul, E., Yu, H., Lin, Y., 2019. Extracellular polymeric substances of biofilms: Suffering from an identity crisis. Water Res. 151, 1–7.
  • Solon, K., Volcke, E.I.P., Sperandio, M., van Loosdrecht, M.C.M., 2019. Resource recovery and wastewater treatment modelling. Environ. Sci.-Water Res. Technol. 5, 631–642.
  • Camarasa, C., Chiron, H., Daboussi, F., Della Valle, G., Dumas, C., Farines, V., Floury, J., Gagnaire, V. (Auteur de correspondance), Gorret, N., Léonil, J., Mouret, J.-R., O’Donohue, M. (Auteur de correspondance), Sablayrolles, J.-M., Salmon, J.-M., Saulnier, L., Truan, G. (2018). INRA’s research in industrial biotechnology: For food, chemicals, materials and fuels. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 46, 140-152. , DOI : 10.1016/j.ifset.2017.11.008 IF=3,1
  • De Cocker, P., Bessiere, Y., Hernandez Raquet, G., Dubos, S., Mozo, I., Gaval, G., Caligaris, M., Barillon, B., Vlaeminck, S. E., Sperandio, M. (Auteur de correspondance) (2018). Enrichment and adaptation yield high anammox conversion rates under low temperatures. Bioresource Technology, 250, 505-512. , DOI : 10.1016/j.biortech.2017.11.079 IF=5,8
  • Escudié, F., Auer, L., Bernard, M., Mariadassou, M., Cauquil, L., Vidal, K., Maman, S., Hernandez-Raquet, G., Combes, S., Pascal, G., 2018. FROGS: Find, Rapidly, OTUs with Galaxy Solution. Bioinforma. Oxf. Engl. 34, 1287–1294.
  • Gales, A., Chatellard, L., Abadie, M., Bonnafous, A., Auer, L., Carrère, H., Godon, J.-J., Hernandez Raquet, G. (Auteur de correspondance), Dumas, C. (Auteur de correspondance) (2018). Screening of Phytophagous and Xylophagous insects guts microbiota abilities to degrade lignocellulose in bioreactor. Frontiers in microbiology, 9, 14 p. , DOI : 10.3389/fmicb.2018.02222 IF=4,0
  • Lazuka, A., Auer, L., O’Donohue, M., Hernandez Raquet, G. (2018). Anaerobic lignocellulolytic microbial consortium derived from termite gut: enrichment, lignocellulose degradation and community dynamics. Biotechnology for Biofuels, 11 (1), 14 p. , DOI : 10.1186/s13068-018-1282-x IF=5,5
  • Mozo, I., Bounouba, M., Mengelle, É., Lesage, Sperandio, M., Bessiere, Y. (2018). Modelling PAH partitioning during sludge disintegration: The key role of dissolved and colloidal matter. Chemosphere, 209, 883-891. , DOI : 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.06.147 IF=4,4
  • Shewani, A., Horgue, P., Pommier, S., Debenest, G., Lefebvre, X., Decremps, S., Paul, E., 2018. Assessment of Solute Transfer Between Static and Dynamic Water During Percolation Through a Solid Leach Bed in Dry Batch Anaerobic Digestion Processes. Waste Biomass Valorization 9, 2081–2089.
  • Shimako, A. H., Tiruta-Barna, L. (Auteur de correspondance), Bisinella De Faria, A. B., Ahmadi, A., Sperandio, M. (2018). Sensitivity analysis of temporal parameters in a dynamic LCA framework. Science of the Total Environment, 624, 1250-1262. , DOI : 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.12.220 IF=4,6
  • Varga, E., Hauduc, H., Barnard, J., Dunlap, P., Jimenez, J., Menniti, A., Schauer, P., Vazquez, C.M.L., Gu, A.Z., Sperandio, M., Takacs, I., 2018. Recent advances in bio-P modelling – a new approach verified by full-scale observations. Water Sci. Technol. 78, 2119–2130.
  • Auer L, Mariadassou M, O’Donohue M, Klopp C, Hernandez-Raquet G. 2017. Analysis of large 16S rRNA Illumina data sets: Impact of singleton read filtering on microbial community description. Molecular Ecology Resources 17: e122–e132. 
  • Auer, L., Lazuka, A., Sillam-Dussès, D., Miambi, E., O’Donohue, M., Hernandez-Raquet, G., 2017. Uncovering the Potential of Termite Gut Microbiome for Lignocellulose Bioconversion in Anaerobic Batch Bioreactors. Front. Microbiol. 8.
  • Benneouala M, Bareha Y, Mengelle E, Bounouba M, Sperandio M, Bessiere Y, Paul E. 2017. Hydrolysis of particulate settleable solids (PSS) in activated sludge is determined by the bacteria initially adsorbed in the sewage. Water Research 125: 400–409.
  • Besson, M., Tiruta-Barna, L., Sperandio, M., 2017. Environmental Assessment of Anammox Process in Mainstream with WWTP Modeling Coupled to Life Cycle Assessment, in: Mannina, G. (Ed.), Frontiers in Wastewater Treatment and Modelling, Ficwtm 2017. Springer International Publishing Ag, Cham, pp. 392–397.
  • De Cocker, P., Bessiere, Y., Hernandez-Raquet, G., Dubos, S., Mercade, M., Sun, X.Y., Mozo, I., Barillon, B., Gaval, G., Caligaris, M., Ruel, S.M., Vlaeminck, S.E., Sperandio, M., 2017. Short and Long Term Effect of Decreasing Temperature on Anammox Activity and Enrichment in Mainstream Granular Sludge Process, in: Mannina, G. (Ed.), Frontiers in Wastewater Treatment and Modelling, Ficwtm 2017. Springer International Publishing Ag, Cham, pp. 50–54.
  • Igos E, Besson M, Navarrete Gutiérrez T, Bisinella de Faria AB, Benetto E, Barna L, Ahmadi A, Spérandio M. 2017. Assessment of environmental impacts and operational costs of the implementation of an innovative source-separated urine treatment. Water Research 126: 50–59
  • Lang L, Pocquet M, Ni B-J, Yuan Z, Sperandio M. 2017. Comparison of different two-pathway models for describing the combined effect of DO and nitrite on the nitrous oxide production by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Water Science and Technology 75: 491–500
  • Lazuka A, Roland C, Barakat A, Guillon F, O’Donohue M, Hernandez-Raquet G. 2017. Ecofriendly lignocellulose pretreatment to enhance the carboxylate production of a rumen-derived microbial consortium. Bioresource Technology 236: 225–233.
  • C. Pérez-Rivero et G. Hernandez Raquet. 2017. Polyhydroxyalcanoates: une alternative ‘bio’ aux plastiques traditionnels. Innovations Agronomiques.
  • Rols JL, Paule A, Coutaud MA, Gonzalez AG, Pokrovsky OS, Morchain J, Leflaive J, Paul E. 2017. A new rotating annular photobioreactor with Taylor-Couette type flow for phototrophic biofilm investigations. E-book “Photobioreactors: Advancements, Applications and Research”, ed Y.F. TSANG, Nova Science Publishers, Inc. Series Environmental Remediation Technologies, Regulations and Safety, ISBN: 978-1-53612-354-8
  • Shewani A, Horgue P, Pommier S, Debenest G, Lefebvre X, Decremps S, Paul E. 2017. Assessment of Solute Transfer Between Static and Dynamic Water During Percolation Through a Solid Leach Bed in Dry Batch Anaerobic Digestion Processes. Waste and Biomass Valorization.
  • Abot A, Arnal G, Auer L, Lazuka A, Labourdette D, Lamarre S, Trouilh L, Laville E, Lombard V, Potocki-Veronese G, et al. 2016. CAZyChip: dynamic assessment of exploration of glycoside hydrolases in microbial ecosystems. BMC genomics 17: 671.
  • Cavaillé, L., Albuquerque, M., Grousseau, E., Lepeuple, A.-S., Uribelarrea, J.-L., Hernandez-Raquet, G., Paul, E., 2016. Understanding of polyhydroxybutyrate production under carbon and phosphorus-limited growth conditions in non-axenic continuous culture. Bioresource Technology – Volume 201, February 2016, Pages 65-73.
  • Constant S, Barakat A, Robitzer M, Di Renzo F, Dumas C, Quignard F. 2016. Composition, texture and methane potential of cellulosic residues from Lewis acids organosolv pulping of wheat straw. Bioresource Technology 216: 737–743.
  • Faria ABB, Ahmadi A, Tiruta-Barna L, Spérandio M. 2016. Feasibility of rigorous multi-objective optimization of wastewater management and treatment plants. Chemical Engineering Research and Design 115, Part B: 394–406.
  • Holliger C., Andrade M.A.D., Angelidaki I., Astals S., Baier U., Bougrier C., Buffière P., Carballa M., de Wilde V., Ebertseder F., Fernández B., Ficara E., Fotidis I., Frigon J.C., Fruteau de Laclos H., Ghasimi D.S.M., Hack G., Hartel M., Heerenklage J., Horvath I.S., Jenicek P., Koch K., Krautwald J., Lizasoain J., Liu J., Mosberger L., Nistor M., Oechsner H., Oliveira J.V., Paterson M., Pauss A., Pommier S., Porqueddu I., Raposo F., Ribeiro T., Rüsch Pfund F., Strömberg S., Torrijos M., van Eekert M., van Lier J., Wedwitschka H. and Wierinck I., 2016. « Towards a standardization of biomethane potential tests ». Water Science and Technology 74 (11): 2515-2522
  • Lavigne MP, Bertron A, Botanch C, Auer L, Hernandez-Raquet G, Cockx A, Foussard J-N, Escadeillas G, Paul E. 2016. Innovative approach to simulating the biodeterioration of industrial cementitious products in sewer environment. Part II: Validation on CAC and BFSC linings. Cement and Concrete Research 79: 409–418.
  • Lebaz N, Cockx A, Spérandio M, Liné A, Morchain J. 2016a. Application of the Direct Quadrature Method of Moments for the modelling of the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose: I. Case of soluble substrate. Chemical Engineering Science 149: 306–321.
  • Lebaz N, Cockx A, Spérandio M, Liné A, Morchain J. 2016b. Application of the Direct Quadrature Method of Moments for the modelling of the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose: II. Case of insoluble substrate. Chemical Engineering Science 149: 322–333.
  • Lebaz, N., Cockx, A., Spérandio, M., Morchain, J., 2016. Reconstruction of a distribution from a finite number of its moments: A comparative study in the case of depolymerization process. Comput. Chem. Eng. 84, 326–337.
  • Mozo, I., Lesage, N., Sperandio, M., Bessiere, Y., 2016. Impact of sonication on activated sludge properties and consequences on PAH partitioning. Can. J. Chem. Eng. 94(2), 244-252.
  • Paule, A., Roubeix, V., Swerhone, G.D.W., Roy, J., Lauga, B., Duran, R., Delmas, F., Paul, E., Rols, J.L., Lawrence, J.R., 2016. Comparative responses of river biofilms at the community level to common organic solvent and herbicide exposure. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 23, 4282–4293.
  • Pocquet, M., Wu, Z., Queinnec, I., Spérandio, M., 2016. A two pathway model for N2O emissions by ammonium oxidizing bacteria supported by the NO/N2O variation. Water Res. 88, 948–959
  • Spérandio M, Pocquet M, Guo L, Ni B-J, Vanrolleghem PA, Yuan Z. 2016. Evaluation of different nitrous oxide production models with four continuous long-term wastewater treatment process data series. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering 39: 493–510.
  • Bisinella de Faria, A.B., Spérandio, M., Ahmadi, A., Tiruta-Barna, L., 2015. Evaluation of new alternatives in wastewater treatment plants based on dynamic modelling and life cycle assessment (DM-LCA). Water Res. 84, 99–111.
  • Constant S, Basset C, Dumas C, Di Renzo F, Robitzer M, Barakat A, Quignard F. 2015. Reactive organosolv lignin extraction from wheat straw: Influence of Lewis acid catalysts on structural and chemical properties of lignins. Industrial Crops and Products 65: 180–189.
  • Dumas C, Silva Ghizzi Damasceno G, Barakat A, Carrère H, Steyer J-P, Rouau X. 2015. Effects of grinding processes on anaerobic digestion of wheat straw. Industrial Crops and Products 74: 450–456.
  • Hauduc, H., Takács, I., Smith, S., Szabo, A., Murthy, S., Daigger, G.T., Spérandio, M., 2015. A dynamic physicochemical model for chemical phosphorus removal. Water Res. 73, 157–170.
  • Lavigne, M.P., Bertron, A., Auer, L., Hernandez-Raquet, G., Foussard, J.-N., Escadeillas, G., Cockx, A., Paul, E., 2015. An innovative approach to reproduce the biodeterioration of industrial cementitious products in a sewer environment. Part I: Test design. Cem. Concr. Res. 73, 246–256.
  • Lazuka, A., Auer, L., Bozonnet, S., Morgavi, D.P., O’Donohue, M., Hernandez-Raquet, G., 2015. Efficient anaerobic transformation of raw wheat straw by a robust cow rumen-derived microbial consortium. Bioresour. Technol. 196, 241–249.
  • Lebaz, N., Cockx, A., Sperandio, M., Morchain, J., 2015. Population Balance Approach for the Modelling of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose. Can. J. Chem. Eng. 93, 276–284.
  • Oudart, D., Robin, P., Paillat, J.M., Paul, E., 2015. Modelling nitrogen and carbon interactions in composting of animal manure in naturally aerated piles. Waste Manag. 46, 588–598.
  • Shewani, A., Horgue, P., Pommier, S., Debenest, G., Lefebvre, X., Gandon, E., Paul, E., 2015. Assessment of percolation through a solid leach bed in dry batch anaerobic digestion processes. Bioresour. Technol. 178, 209–216.


Inventeurs : Xavier LEFEBVRE, Mathieu SPERANDIO, Michel MAURET, Evrard MENGELLE, Zhenjun WU et Mathieu POCQUET 

Titulaires : CNRS, INRA, INSA 

Déposants : CNRS, INRA, INSA – Demande de Brevet prioritaire Européen EP141960872 du 03/12/2014 – Extension PCT PCTEP2015078315 du 02/12/2015 – Licence Biorad 

Paul E, Liné A, Tournier A, Guyomet L. 2005. Tuyau à biofilm. N°FR2 864 561 – A1

Chapitres d'ouvrages et ouvrages

Uncovering the Potential of Termite Gut Microbiome for Lignocellulose Bioconversion in Anaerobic Batch Bioreactors

Author(s): Auer, L (Auer, Lucas); Lazuka, A (Lazuka, Adele); Sillam-Dusses, D (Sillam-Dusses, David); Miambi, E (Miambi, Edouard); O’Donohue, M (O’Donohue, Michael); Hernandez-Raquet, G (Hernandez-Raquet, Guillermina)

Source: FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY  Volume: 8  Article Number: 2623  DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.02623  Published: DEC 22 2017 

Accession Number: WOS:000418598200001

Bernet N, Paul E. 2006. Application of biological treatment systems for food-processing wastewaters. In: F.J. Cervantes SGP, and A. C Van Haandel, editor. Advanced Biological Treatment Processes for Industrial Wastewaters. Principles and Application: IWA Publishing.

Bernet N, Spérandio M. 2006. Application of biological treatment to N-rich effluent. In: F.J. Cervantes SGP, and A. C Van Haandel, editor. Advanced Biological Treatment Processes for Industrial Wastewaters: Principles and Application: IWA Publishing.