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Researcher INRA
MetaSys team
+33 (0) 561 559 355
INSA de Toulouse
135 avenue de Rangueil
31077 Toulouse cedex 4 - FRANCE




since 2014

INRA Researcher

MICA Department


Post-doctoral position at the Manchester Center for Integrative Systems Biology, Manchester, UK
Project: Towards a digital E. coli
Keywords: predictive biology, synthetic biology, modeling of metabolic systems, control, regulation


PhD in Microbial and enzymatic engineering at LISBP, INSA de Toulouse, France
Project: Role of the Csr system in carbon nutrition and in control of central metabolism of Escherichia coli K12 MG1655 and Nissle 1917
Keywords: systems biology, metabolism, Escherichia coli, 13C-metabolic flux analysis, metabolomics, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance


Master degree in Structural biochemistry, Proteomics and Metabolomics, Université Toulouse 3, France
Project: Functional characterization of E. coli metabolism during growth on fucose
Keywords: deoxysugars metabolism, Escherichia coli, 13C-metabolic flux analysis, metabolomics




My research works aim at a better understanding of the organization, functioning and regulation of natural and synthetic metabolic systems at the cellular level, by using a Systems biology approach combining experimental (growth phenotyping, metabolomics, 13C-metabolic flux analysis, etc) and computational (stoichiometric and kinetic modeling, statistics, etc) tools. In particular, I develop, validate and exploit explicative and predictive models of metabolism which integrate a broad range of functional data (stoichiometry, thermodynamics, metabolite pools, enzyme activities and kinetics, metabolic fluxes, isotopic measurements, etc) to investigate the control and regulation of metabolic fluxes. I then use this knowledge to understand the role of metabolism in the adaptation of Escherichia coli to its environment, and to design robust and efficient strains as cell factories for innovative and original biotechnological applications.




  • Millard P., Smallbone K. and Mendes P. (2017). Metabolic regulation is sufficient for global and robust coordination of glucose uptake, catabolism, energy production and growth in Escherichia coli. Plos computational biology, 13(2):e1005396. DOI : 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005396
  • Millard P., Cahoreau E., Heuillet M., Portais J.C. and Lippens G. (2017). 15N-NMR-based approach for amino acids-based 13C-metabolic flux analysis of metabolism. Analytical chemistry, 89(3):2101-2106. DOI : 10.1021/acs.analchem.6b04767
  • Rodriguez A., Martinez J.A., Millard P., Gosset G., Portais J.C., Létisse F and Bolivar F. (2017). Plasmid-encoded biosynthetic genes alleviate metabolic disadvantages while increasing glucose conversion to shikimate in an engineered Escherichia coli strain. Biotechnology and bioengineering, in press. DOI: 10.1002/bit.26264
  • Enjalbert B., Millard P., Dinclaux M., Portais J.C. and Létisse F. (2017). Acetate fluxes in Escherichia coli are determined by the thermodynamic control of the Pta-AckA pathway. Scientific reports, 7:42135.
  • Heux S., Bergès C., Millard P., Portais J.C., Létisse F. (2016). Recent advances in high-throughput 13C-fluxomics. Curr. Op. Biotech., 43:104–109.
  • Millard P, Portais, J.C, Mendes P. (2015). Impact of kinetic isotope effects in isotopic studies of metabolic systems. BMC Systems Biology, 9:64. DOI : 10.1186/s12918-015-0213-8
  • Smallbone, K., Millard, P. (2015). Multi-scale modelling of E. coli metabolism. PeerJ PrePrints, 3, e1128. DOI : 10.7287/peerj.preprints.914v1
  • Stanford, N.J., Millard, P., Swainston, N. (2015). RobOKoD: microbial strain design for (over)production of target compounds. Front Cell Dev Biol, 3(17). DOI : 10.3389/fcell.2015.00017
  • Millard, P., Sokol, S., Letisse, F., Portais, J.-C. (2014). IsoDesign: a software for optimizing the design of 13C-metabolic flux analysis experiments. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 111 (1), 202-208. DOI : 10.1002/bit.24997
  • Millard, P., Massou, S., Wittmann, C., Portais, J.-C., Letisse, F. (2014). Sampling of intracellular metabolites for stationary and non-stationary 13C-metabolic flux analysis in Escherichia coli. Analytical Biochemistry, 465, 38-49. DOI : 10.1016/j.ab.2014.07.026
  • Millard, P., Massou, S., Portais, J.-C., Letisse, F. (2014). Isotopic studies of metabolic systems by mass spectrometry: using Pascal's triangle to produce biological standards with fully controlled labeling patterns. Analytical chemistry, 86 (20), 10288 - 10295. DOI : 10.1021/ac502490g
  • Millard P., Letisse F., Sokol S., Portais J.C. (2014). Correction of MS data for naturally occurring isotopes in isotope labelling experiments. Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.), 1191, 197-207. DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4939-1170-7_12
  • Gerland, B., Millard, P., Dupouy, C., Renard, B.-L., Escudier, J.-M. (2014). Stabilization of hairpins and bulged secondary structures of nucleic acids by single incorporation of α,β-D-CNA featuring a gauche(+) alpha torsional angle. RSC Advances, 4, 48821-48826. DOI : 10.1039/C4RA09639H
  • Revelles, O.*, Millard, P.*, Nougayrede, J.P., Dobrindt, U., Oswald, E., Létisse, F., Portais, J.-C. (2013). The carbon storage regulator (Csr) system exerts a nutrient-specific control over central metabolism in Escherichia coli strain nissle 1917. Plos One, 8 (6). DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0066386
  • Millard, P., Letisse, F., Sokol, S., Portais, J.-C. (2012). IsoCor: correcting MS data in isotope labeling experiments. Bioinformatics, 28 (9), 1294 - 1296. DOI : 10.1093/bioinformatics/bts127
  • Sokol, S., Millard, P., Portais, J.-C. (2012). influx_s: increasing numerical stability and precision for metabolic flux analysis in isotope labelling experiments. Bioinformatics, 28 (5), 687 - 693. DOI : 10.1093/bioinformatics/btr716
  • Boissonnet, A., Dupouy, C., Millard, P., Durrieu, M.-P., Tarrat, N., Escudier, J.-M. (2011). alpha,beta-D-CNA featuring canonical and noncanonical alpha/beta torsional angles behaviours within oligonucleotides. New Journal of Chemistry, 35 (7), 1528 - 1533. DOI : 10.1039/c1nj20086k
  • Dupouy, C., Millard, P., Boissonnet, A., Escudier, J.M. (2010). α,β-D-CNA preorganization of unpaired loop moiety stabilizes DNA hairpin. Chem Commun, 46(28):5142-5144. DOI : 10.1039/C0CC00244E