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Etienne PAULProfesseur

Etienne PAUL
Equipe Symbiose EAD9
+33 (0)5 61 55 97 72
INSA de Toulouse
135 avenue de Rangueil
31077 Toulouse cedex 4 - FRANCE




Academic Qualification

- Biochemical engineer graduated from the Provence Technical University at Marseille (ESIL), France
- PhD in Biochemical Engineering from the National Institute of Applied Sciences, Toulouse, France

Professional Experience

- Professor at the National Institute of Applied Sciences in the Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering.
- For 13 years (1996-2009), Head of the team “Microbial Ecosystem and Bioprocesses for Treatment and Valorization” (Symbiose) (10 persons)

Specific Responsibilities

2009-to now: Head of the group "Water and Air Treatment" of the French Chemical Engineering Association (SFGP).Members of Scientific Associations (IWA, ASTEE, SFGP)

Member of the editorial board of the journal Environmental Technology
Coordinator for LISBP at the doctorate school “MEGEP”



Field of research

biological treatment and valorization of waters, wastewaters and wastes.
- Modeling population dynamics of suspended and attached microbial cultures
- Biofilm reactors, biofilm in networks, biofilm in industry, strategy for biofilm removal. Characterization, Mass transport, kinetics, detachment…
- COD biodegradation, reduction of sludge production, ozonation, thermal treatment
- Anaerobic digestion of sludge and organic wastes
- Innovative waste and wastewater treatment
- valorization processes: bioplastic (Polyhydroxyalcanoates) production from sludge


Academic collaborations

- Nanyang Technical University (Pr. Yu LIU)
- Tongji University, Laboratory of pollution control and resource recovery. (Pr. Zhou QI, )
- Jiaotong University: Pr. Jiangping QIU
2 network sino-french research programmes (P2R and Arcus) (2004 à 2009)
- 5 European programmes


Recent funding programmes

ANR PRECODD (DIGUE (2006-2008), BIOFIME (2009-2001), VALORIA (2009-2001) ; 1 Regional programmes (SURF 2007…) ; Industrial contracts (Saint Gobain PAM; Véolia Environnement, Suez Environnement, Proserpol, Eparco, Aquaprox)



  • Biochemical engineering,
  • Wastewater engineering
  • Conventional and advanced methods for pollution characterization
  • Coordinator of international relations for the department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering



Scientific production

- International publications: 50 SCI-tracked journal papers

- Patents: 3
- Books and Chapters 2 + 3
- International communications:
- Intern. Invited conferences: 3
- PhD supervisor: 20
- Post doc supervisor: 5
- HDR supervisor: 2
- Awards: 1


List of Publications

SCI-tracked journal papers
Paul E., Mulard D., Blanc P., Fages J., Goma G., Pareilleux A. (1990) Effects of partial O2 pressure, partial CO2 pressure, and agitation on growth kinetics of Azospirillum lipoferum under fermentor conditions. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 56, 11, p.3235-3239.
Paul E., Fages J., Blanc P., Goma G., Pareilleux A. (1993). Effect of drying and storage conditions on the survival of Azospirillum lipoferum included into alginate. Applied Microbiology Biotechnology, 40, p.34-39.

J. Cantet, E. Paul, F. Clauss (1996) Upgrading nitrification performance of an activated sludge process through addition of talqueous powder. Wat. Sci. Tech, vol 34, n°5-6 p.75-83)
M. Mauret, E. Paul, E. Puech-Costes, M. T. Maurette, P. Baptiste (1996) Application of experimental research methodology to the study of nitrification in mixed culture. Wat Sci Tech, vol 34, n°1-2 p.245-252
V.M. Luna pabello, S. Plisson saune, E. Paul and C. Duran De Bazua (1996) Ciliatological characterization of a biological reactor that eliminates nitrogen with intermitent aeration. Rev. Lat. Amer. Microbiol., vol 38, p.89-96
Sperandio M. and E. Paul (1997) Determination of Carbon Dioxide Evolution Rate Using On Line Gas Analysis during dynamic biodegradation experiments. Biotech. Bioeng. , vol 53, n°3 p.243-252
Liu Y., Chen G. H. and Paul E. (1998) Effect of the So/Xo ratio on energy uncoupling in substrate sufficient batch culture of activated sludge. Wat. Res. 32 (10), p.2883-2888
Lefebvre X., Paul E., Mauret M., Baptiste P. (1998). Kinetic characterization of saponified domestic lipid residues aerobic biodegradation. Wat. Res., 32 (10), p.3031-3038.
Paul E., Plisson Saune S., Mauret M. and Cantet J. (1998). Process state evaluation of alternating oxic-anoxic activated sludge using ORP, pH and DO. Wat. Sci. Tech, 38 (3), p.299-306.
Spérandio M., Urbain V., Audic J. M. and Paul E. (1999). Use of carbon dioxide evolution rate measurement for determining yield coefficient and characterising denitrifying heterotrophic biomass. Wat. Sci. Tech., 39 (1), p.139-146
Martinage, V., Paul, E. (2000) effect of environmental parameters on autotrophic decay rate (bA). Environmental Technology, vol. 21, (1), pp. 31-41.
Spérandio, M., Paul, E. (2000) Estimation of wastewater biodegradable COD fractions by combining respirometric experiments in various So/Xo ratios. Water Research, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 1233-1246.
Déléris, S., Paul, E., Audic, J.M., Roustan, M., Debellefontaine, H. (2000) Effect of ozonation on activated sludge solubilization and mineralization. Ozone Science & Engineering, vol. 22, pp. 473-486.
Spérandio, M., Moreau-Le Golvan, Y., Lefebvre, X., Paul, E. (2000) Biostabilisation of the wastewater sludge stored in landfill. Environmental Technology, vol. 21, (11), pp.
Carvalho G., Paul E., Novais J.M. and H.M. Pinheiro (2000) Studies on activated sludge response to variations in the composition of a synthetic surfactant-containing feed effluent. Wat. Sci. Tech., 42 (5-6), pp.135-143.
Spérandio, M., Urbain, V., Ginestet, P., Audic, J.M., Paul, E. (2001) Application of COD fractionation by a new combined technique: comparison of various wastewaters and sources of variability. Water Science & Technology, Vol. 43, (1), pp 181-190
Anderson, E., Ginestet, P., Paul, E., Spérandio, M. (2001) Influence of pre-treatments and recycled flows on the COD fractions of a wastewater: a case study. Water Science & Technology, Vol. 43, (11), pp 99-108
Mauret, M., Ferrand, F., Boisdon, V., Spérandio, M., Paul, E. (2001) Process using DO and ORP signals for biological nitrification and denitrification by sequencing oxygenation on a single basin : validation on a food-processing industry WWTP and boosting with pure oxygen. Water Science & Technology, Vol. 44, (2-3), pp 163-170
Le Bihan, Y., Martinage V., Lessard P., Paul E. (2001) Influence des protozoaires sur le taux de mortalité des bactéries autotrophes nitrifiantes. Revue des Sciences de l’Eau vol 14, no1 pp.
Paul E., Spérandio M. (2001) Sludge production and costs associated to phosphorus removal. Second international conference on Recovery of Phosphates from sewage and animal wastes, Environ. Technol. pp.
Ochoa J.C., Colprim J., Palacio B., Chatellier, P. E. Paul (2002). Active heterotrophic and autotrophic biomass distribution between fixed and suspended systems in an hybrid biological reactor. Wat. Sci. Tech. 46 (1-2) pp. 397-404

Deleris, S., Geaugey, V., Camacho, P., Debellefontaine, H. et Paul, E. (2002). Minimization of sludge production in biological processes : an alternative solution for the problem of sludge disposal. Wat. Sci. Tech. Vol.46, (10), pp 63-70
Camacho, P., Geaugey, V., Ginestet, P. et Paul, E. (2002). Feasability study of mechanically disintegrated sludge and recycle in the activated sludge process. Wat. Sci. Tech. Vol.46, (10), pp 97-104
Camacho, P., Deléris, S., Geaugey, V., Ginestet, P., et Paul, E. (2002). A comparative study between mechanical, thermal and oxidative disintegration techniques of waste activated sludge. Wat. Sci. Tech. Vol.46, (10), pp 79-87
Cesbron D., Déléris S., Debellefontain H., Roustan M. and E. Paul (2003) Study of competition for ozone between soluble and particulate matter during activated sludge ozonation. Chemical Engineering Research & Design 81 (a9): 1165-1170.
PAUL E. CARRÈRE H., AND LAFFORGUE C. 2003. Une combinaison de techniques de traitement pour une production de boues réduite, voire nulle ! Déchets Sciences et Techniques
Pambrun, V., Paul, E., Spérandio, M. 2004 Modelling the partial nitrification in Sequencing Batch Reactor for biomass adapted to high ammonia concentrations. Water Science & Technology, Vol. 50 (6),
DZIURLA M.A., LEROY P., STRÜNKMANN G.W., SALHI M., LEE D.U., CAMACHO P., HEINZ V., MÜLLER J. A., PAUL E., GINESTET PH., AUDIC J.M. AND BLOCK J.C. 2004 Measurement of glutathione in activated sludges. Water Research 38 (1), 236-244
Boursier, H; Beline, F; Paul, E. 2004. Activated Sludge Model No.1 calibration for piggery wastewater treatment using respirometry. Wat. Sci. Tech. 49 (5-6): 389-395.
Boursier H, Beline F. Paul, E. 2005. Piggery wastewater characterisation for biological nitrogen removal process design. Bioresource Technology 96: 351-358.
Wolff DB, Ochoa JC, Paul E, Da Costa RHR. 2005. Nitrification in hybrid reactor with a recycled plastic support material. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 48: 243-248.
Pambrun V, Paul E, Spérandio M. 2006. Modeling the partial nitrification in sequencing batch reactor for biomass adapted to high ammonia concentrations. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 95: 120-131.
Paul E, Camacho P, Lefebvre D, Ginestet P. 2006a. Organic matter release in low temperature thermal treatment of biological sludge for reduction of excess sludge production. Water Science and Technology 54: 59-68.
Paul E, Camacho P, Spérandio M, Ginestet P. 2006b. Technical and economical evaluation of a thermal, and two oxidative techniques for the reduction of excess sludge production. Process Safety and Environmental Protection 84: 247-252.
Queinnec I, Ochoa JC, Wouwer AV, Paul E. 2006. Development and calibration of a nitrification PDE model based on experimental data issued from biofilter treating drinking water. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 94: 209-222.
Beline F, Boursier H, Daumer ML, Guiziou F, Paul E. 2007a. Modelling of biological processes during aerobic treatment of piggery wastewater aiming at process optimisation. Bioresource Technology 98: 3298-3308.
Beline F, Boursier H, Guiziou F, Paul E. 2007b. Modelling of biological nitrogen removal during treatment of piggery wastewater. Water Science and Technology 55: 11-19.
Coufort C, Derlon N, Ochoa-Chaves J, Line A, Paul E. 2007. Cohesion and detachment in biofilm systems for different electron acceptor and donors. Water Science and Technology 55: 421-428.
Ochoa JC, Coufort C, Escudie R, Line A, Paul E. 2007. Influence of non-uniform distribution of shear stress on aerobic biofilms. Chemical Engineering Science 62: 3672-3684.
Paul E, Debellefontaine H. 2007. Reduction of excess sludge produced by biological treatment processes: Effect of ozonation on biomass and on sludge. Ozone-Science & Engineering 29: 415-427.

Paul E, Wolff DB, Ochoa JC, da Costa RHR. 2007. Recycled and virgin plastic carriers in hybrid reactors for wastewater treatment. Water Environment Research 79: 765-774.
Derlon N, Masse A, Escudie R, Bernet N, Paul E. 2008. Stratification in the cohesion of biofilms grown under various environmental conditions. Water Research 42: 2102-2110.
Pambrun V, Paul E, Spérandio M. 2008. Control and modelling of partial nitrification of effluents with high ammonia concentrations in sequencing batch reactor. Chemical Engineering and Processing 47: 323-329.
Ras M, Girbal-Neuhauser E, Paul E, Sperandio M, Lefebvre D. 2008. Protein extraction from activated sludge: An analytical approach. Water Research 42: 1867-1878.
Sperandio M, Pambrun V, Paul E. 2008. Simultaneous removal of N and P in a SBR with production of valuable compounds: application to concentrated wastewaters. Water Science and Technology 58: 859-864.
Shen L, Liu Y, Paul E. 2009. A simple geometric approach for simplification of Langmuir kinetics for adsorption. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 349, 1-3: 78-82
Dumas C, Perez S, Paul E, Lefebvre X. 2010. Combined thermophilic aerobic process and conventional anaerobic digestion: effect on sludge biodegradation and methane production Bioresource Technology 101. 2629–2636
Talvy S, Ochoa JC, Paul E, Liné A. 2010. Influence of the nature of hydrodynamic constraints on aerobic biofilms. International Journal of Environment and Waste Management (IJEWM). Special Issue on: “Microbial Immobilisation Technology for Wastewater Treatment” in press.
Héry, M., Sanguin H, Perez Fabiel S, Lefebvre X, Vogel TM, Paul E, Alfenore S. 2010. Monitoring of bacterial communities during low temperature thermal treatment of activated sludge combining DNA phylochip and respirometry techniques, Water Research In press.
Wolff DB, Paul E, Da Costa RHR. 2010. The influence of material support kind on the biological moving bed reactors performance used for carbon removal and nitrification of sewage. Eng. Sanit. Ambient 15, 2: 149-154



Paul E, Debellefontaine H. 2006. Effect of ozonation on biomass and sludge. Umwelt 06, Zuerich Kongresshaus – IOA Seminar "Ozone for sludge" – Sept 14th.
Paul E, Coufort C, Derlon N, Liné A. 2006. Procédés à biomasse fixée dans le traitement de l’eau. Journée Thématique Réseau National Biofilm : Procédés Industriels et Risques Sanitaires, Orléans.


Others (Patents, special issues, book chapter,…)

Paul E. and X. Lefebvre (1998) Procédé et installation de dégradation biologique aérobie de compositions lipidiques brevet n° 97 05801
Paul E. and Buffière P.(2003) Procédé d’épuration biologique des eaux résiduaires en cultures mixtes. N° 2 821 345
Paul E, Liné A, Tournier A, Guyomet L. 2005. Tuyau à biofilm. N°FR2 864 561 – A1.
Issues :
Liu Y, Paul E, Zhao QL, Hung YT, Aziz HA. 2009. Special issue: microbial immobilisation technology
For wastewater treatment Int. J. Environment and Waste Management, Vol. x, No. x, xxxx
Book chapter :
Bernet N, Paul E. 2006. Application of biological treatment systems for food-processing wastewaters.
In Advanced Biological Treatment Processes for Industrial Wastewaters. Principles and Application. Edited by F.J. Cervantes, S.G. Pavlostathis, and A. C Van Haandel. IWA Publishing, London, UK.
Jiang B, Liu Y, Chen GH, Paul E (2009) Uncoupled Energy Metabolism for Sludge Reduction in the Activated Sludge Process. In: Biochemical Engineering, ed. by Fabian E. Dumont and Jack A. Sacco. Nova Science Publishers, New York.
Communications are not included